Sunday, March 04, 2007


Update March 2008: This was the first post I wrote about croissants. To go directly to my current favorite recipe, click here. Links to all my subsequent croissants adventures are included at the bottom of this post.

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I hesitate to publish this post about croissants. My husband has been away 6 days, and when he sees how much time I've spent on this project in his absence, he's bound to wonder whether I didn't have more urgent tasks to address. Which of course I did...

But how can I not share the fun I had making one of the most challenging baked goods, croissants?

I won't publish a detailed recipe (update October 2007: actually I did, see the last part of this post). The (excellent) recipe I used is here, courtesy of Le Pétrin. I'll translate it to English if anyone requests it. But there's loads more information to be had about croissants in the links below:
- A group of bloggers all recently got together to post about croissants on the same day. Links to their varied and interesting experiences can be accessed on Cream Puffs in Venice. Veronica's Test Kitchen has their full recipe (which seemed a bit harder than the one I used, and perhaps even richer in butter).
- Very useful discussion threads in egullet here and here (courtesy of this post).
- Two more good posts in French: Mercotte and Plaisir Gourmand (lots of photos in the last one, even if you don't understand French)
- Another long post by La Tartine Gourmande
Update March 5:
- Zorra posted about the difficulties she had producing croissants in warm weather. The result nevertheless looks appetizing to me.
- Oh and I almost forgot, a full video demonstration by Esther McManus on my favorite video site, PBS Julia Child Lessons with Master Chefs. Her recipe, if I remember correctly, seemed a bit long and initimidating the first time I saw it on video, so I didn't rely on it this time. Until I ran into trouble with butter leakage and ran to my computer for advice.
Then I noticed how much she emphasizes working firmly yet gently with the dough, using amusing expressions: "you're in position of authority [...] don't be scared of the dough, the dough should be scared of you [...] the dough doesn't want to but you're the boss" but also "beat the butter kindly but firmly"... "I won't go any further than this because I feel that it doesn't want to"... "I am going to tell it 'come on, please, get together nicely' but I'm not going to force it because it does not like to be forced..." "if it doesn't work, it means it's not ready. Put it back in the fridge and don't worry about it". (If I confess I feel these instructions also apply to parenting, in an allegorical sense, you won't assume I beat my kids either kindly or firmly, right?!)

I did put together a few slides with step by step photos of my experience, along with comments. Just click on each slide to view the details.

Making the dough
(As always, click to view larger image)

Creating the butter layers
(Update: when I look at the pictures below, I am quite sure that the butter block was much too small compared to the rest of the dough, and therefore the croissants came out too heavy and dense. Definitely roll the butter out to a larger square than what is shown here.)

Rolling out the dough and forming the croissants

Proofing and baking the croissants

Anyway, the kids are happy, the wife is happy, so the husband should be happy! And we have some croissants waiting for him in the freezer, just in case he needs further convincing this was a highly productive use of my time.

Update October 2007
I feel a new wave of croissants coming soon, and to get in the mood have decided to post the recipe here in English:

Recipe: Croissants
Source: Le Pétrin
(for about 20 croissants)

For the fermented dough
- 88g flour T45 (or "gruau" [whatever that is. Try all-purpose flour as a substitution])
- 88g flour T55 [try all-purpose]
- 100g cold water
- 55g soft butter
- 2,5g fresh yeast ("levure fraîche de boulangerie") [I used dried yeast, don't remember what conversion ratio I found but I looked it up on the internet]

For the "Détrempe" (dough?)
- 312g flour T45 (ou de gruau)
- 94g flour T55
- 175g cold milk
- 65g sugar [a little too much?]
- 20g fresh yeast ("levure fraîche de boulangerie")
- 15g salt
- 250g butter or special margarine for "feuilletage" [I used butter]

Preparing the fermented dough

In a large bol or the bowl of a mixer, mix all the ingredients and knead until you get a fairly supple dough that is no longer sticky. Roll in a ball, cover the bowl with plastic wrap and let rest at room temperature for 15 hours.

Making the croissant dough

In a large bowl, mix the flours, the salt and the sugar.
Make a well: add the crumbled yeast, the cold milk and the fermented dough broken into pieces. Mix for 5 minutes then knead for 10 minutes [my note: this seems like it might be a bit too long, but I haven't tested a shorter kneading time yet] until the dough, which was hard and firm at the start of the kneading process, becomes more supple and homegenous. (If you are using a mixer, it is better to use the paddle attachment rather than the kneading attachment to avoid making dough that is too elastic, which would make rolling the dough more difficult). [That was Sandra's note. I don't have a mixer, I kneaded by hand or with my hand-held mixer, I forget].

Divide the dough in two balls of the same weight (to make things easier). Reserve one ball in the fridge.

Roll the dough on a silicone mat or a piece of baking paper to form a 25x25cm square. Place in the freezer for 15 min.
During this time, take the butter out of the fridge, place it between two sheets of baking paper and roll into a square that is 1cm thick (bang it regularly with the rolling pin). Keep in the fridge.

"Tourage" (Turns?)

Take the dough out of the freezer and the butter out of the fridge. On a lightly floured work surface, place the square of dough and place the square of butter on top in a diamond position (see illustrations). Close the dough over the butter to lock it in completely, and turn it over so the closure is against the table. Roll out the dough as regularly as possible and form a rectangle 45x15cm (place the rolling pin in the middle of the dough and roll from the middle up then from the middle down). Bring each extremity into the centre of the rectangle, leaving 1 cm space for folding (double turn). Turn the dough a quarter of a turn. Remember to remove excess flour regularly with a brush. Roll again into a rectangle that is three times longer than wide, and make another double turn or a single turn (the dough is folded in three like a letter). Wrap the dough in plastic film and let it rest in the fridge at least 15 minutes (you can leave it 3 or 4 hours).

Proceed the same way with the other half of the dough.

Shaping and baking the croissants

On the floured work surface, roll out the dough to form a rectangle measuring 50x40cm. [I was not able to get it this big.] Cut in two width-wise (resulting in 2 strips of 25x40cm). Cut triangles that are 25cm high and 10cm wide (6 triangles in the top half, 6 in the lower). Make a small incision at the base of the triangle to make rolling easier. Roll the dough from the base of the triangle to the point, not too tightly.
Place the croissants with the tip of the triangle Déposer les croissants pointe wedged underneath on a baking sheet covered with baking paper. Brush with egg wash made of an egg whisked with a pinch of salt, being careful not to let the egg wash run down the sides (would inhibit the puffing). Let the croissants rise for 2 1/2 hours at 26°C.
Again apply egg wash delicately, and bake in the preheated oven (200°C) about 20 minutes (you can place a recipient with water in the oven to increase puffing).

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Update: Summary of my croissants endeavours

I've written a total of four posts about croissants (yes...), so here's an overview:

- First attempt (this post), recipe from Le Pétrin. This post provides the first recipe I used, a lot of process photos, and links to many other croissant resources.
- Second attempt. The recipe from Hermé is included in this post. This is my current favorite recipe, provided the water is increased.
- Third attempt, and total failure, still using recipe from Hermé.
This shows what happens when the dough is too dry (yuck)
- Fourth attempt, using recipe from Hermé. Good croissants. Increasing the amount of water and improving proofing made a huge difference. Some process photos.


Sam said...

that is a stunning post.
With amazing looking results. I have always wanted/intended to make croissants too.
I guess I better book myself a six day vacation and get started...

zorra said...

I did some last summer, but it was to hot, and I had some difficulties. ;-)

tanya said...

Absolutely beautiful!

Astrid said...

Sam - Thank you so much! Being alone with kids and a part-time job didn't exactly feel like a vacation, but stealing time away from household chores did! It's a long recipe but if you spread it out over several days it is quite manageable.

Zorra - Of course, I remember drooling over your post. I can imagine the summer heat in southern Spain would be rough on this recipe!

Tanya - Thanks! It's not nearly as intricate as your patchwork quilts, but fun to obsess over nonetheless.

Kai Carver said...

Nice star!

Wait, it's a star, made of crescents...
a sun, made of moons...
(mind boggles)

They look delicious, anyway.

Claudia said...

Astrid, you did a great job! Great photos of the process of making nice croissants. I still don't have the courage to try croissants. But as with other recipes I think it's a myth. With this post you encouraged me to give it a try!

Raul said...

hmmm.... croissants, lemon cakes, pecanios, chouquettes... hmmm lekker!! (as they say here in holland).

off topic: next week i am in DAVOS (CH) and i wonder what is the typical food in that region Swiss kitchen is still rather unknown to me.

Helene said...

I remember that croissant making weekend all too well. I love Sandra's recipe better than the one we used. Easy, less frilly, old school!

Astrid said...

Kai - I had fun taking photos (for once during daylight).

Claudia - They're really not that hard to make, just time consuming. One thing that makes them easier is you can always leave the dough to rest for a while in the fridge, to finish whatever else you have to do, then start again later. The only tricky thing is rolling the dough out thin enough without tearing it. To make that easier, use enough flour (you can always brush it off), and let the dough rest in the fridge whenever you feel it's not cooperating.

Raul - Glad if the recipes make you hungry! I'm not sure what to recommend in terms of Swiss food. Maybe you should go to Zorra's site and ask her? She's Swiss (even if she's living in Spain), whereas I'm not Swiss, though I live in Zurich! Here in Zurich they make things like Züri Geschnetzltes (spelling surely wrong), veal in cream sauce, and Rösti (sort of loose potato-pancake) which is good, but I know I haven't really had a good exposure to local delicacies. I find restaurants here very expensive, and don't have many occasions to try new things.

Helene - Actually Sandra in her post said this recipe is not typical. I wonder what a typical croissant recipe is. Most recipes seem to require 3 single turns (3*3*3 = 27 layers), or 3 single and one double (3*3*4= 36 layers), and hers only 4*4 = 16 layers. Also she doesn't chill the dough between turns, which I did nonetheless. Next time I might try her recipe with a little less sugar and with 3 single turns. And chilling.

Brilynn said...

Well done! Croissants take forever, but they're soooo good when they come out of the oven!

Linda said...

woah is me. i am surely intimidated. what a spread of processes and photos. lovely really. i dont know that i could really do this but i'd sure like to try!

maycook said...

You're a real pro!

Culinary Cowgirl said...

Oh my...croissants are my favorite! Such beautiful photos. Now I am craving them...perhaps I will stir up a batch (my son loves them too).

Astrid said...

Brilynn - Thanks, and I'm half-tempted to make a new batch soon...

Linda - I don't think they're really hard to make, just time-consuming... But then I feel intimidated by the tasty vegetable dishes you display on your blog!

Maycook - Thanks!

Culinary Cowgirl - Yes, the kids do enjoy these. I recently asked my 4-year old what she would like me to bake, and she said "Gipfeli" (that's what they're called here in German-speaking Switzerland). I wish I could satisfy her craving on a whim!

Anonymous said...

Looks gorgeous, well done i would love it if you could post the recipe.

mimosa said...

waou they look very goog, better than in a boulangerie!

Tanya said...

Astrid - your croissants are so pretty. I tried some (see my blog) and they were yummy but ugly. I'm going to try your recipe and instructions and see if I can do better. One question - really I let the initial dough rest on the counter for 15 hours?

Anonymous said...


It's definitely worth the trouble..

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petit homme said...

Wow, tes croissants sont super !

Je suis à l'instant même en train d'en faire moi même, et ils sont pas mal non plus ( j'ai déjà fait l'expérience il y a un mois) Sinon, ton blog est sympa aussi, disons que c'est un anglais que je peux comprendre !

Bon, je ne pense pas devoir traduire se commentaire en anglais, car à en juger ton blog, tu es française d'origine, like me !


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Anonymous said...

I'm so high right now and this looks delicious

Amallia Eka Widyastuti said...

nice post...nice blog

kolay yemek tarifleri said...

Your croissant recipe is great. Apart from it photos are amazing. Thanks.

jyoti@croissantslover said...

recipe so delicious nd Looks very nice........