Thursday, April 24, 2008


I feel ready to post about macarons. Several years after the craze hit the blogging world, I can finally say I have made some myself.

My first really successful macarons were the lemon ones on the left, using chef Pang's recipe. The chocolate ones were the funny baseball cap ones I mentioned earlier, and the caramel-hazelnut ones on the right were too wet and their feet spread out too much.

Tricky little things
These little treats are often annoying and unpredictable, as I described in an earlier post. Three ingredients go into the cookies: egg whites, confectioner's sugar and ground almonds. But simple they are not. Egg whites must be aged, nuts must be ground with sugar and sifted, batter must be mixed just so, shapes piped and left to crust (or not), cookie pans doubled to produce "feet" (lacy stuff around the edges), water squirted under parchment paper to facilitate removal of cookies, etc.

I am not yet ready to give "Astrid's secrets to macarons," as I do not have consistently good or predictable results (but I can point you toward one recent and excellent tutorial by Hélène at Tartelette). I will however tell you about my experiences with two recipes I tried multiple times: those by Pierre Hermé (of course) and Chef Pang Kok Keong.

Finding a recipe that's not too sweet
Pierre Hermé does not add any sugar to his egg whites, and chef Pang uses the French meringue method (a small amount of sugar is whisked into the egg whites). I have not tried the Italian meringue method (a hot syrup is whisked into the egg whites). It is my understanding that this latter version is much more consistent in its results, but also that it is sweeter and more like meringue. I find macarons are plenty sweet enough as it is, and if I wanted to make meringue, I would!

I really, really wanted to succeed with the Hermé recipe. His seems to have the lowest amount of sugar of any I have come across. And honestly, I find macarons are in general a little too sweet. But I simply could not get consistent results, and most of the time the ones I made using his recipe came out limp and too fragile. Except for the chocolate ones, in which perhaps the cocoa acts as a stabilizing force.

I then tried chef Pang Kok Keong’s recipe and had much better results. Yes there is a little more sugar, but not as much as many other recipes out there, and it seems to make the batter more cooperative. Also I suspect the higher baking temperature and longer baking time makes these easier to handle. Though they do tend to brown a little too much.

Flavor experiments: hazelnut-caramel, coffee, lemon, and chocolate

Hazelnut macarons with salted caramel filling. Recipe below.

The combination of hazelnut macaron and salted caramel filling came from Veronica's Test Kitchen, and it is delicious. Recipe follows. Several of my tasters said it was the best I made.

Coffee macarons: the cookies are flavored with coffee extract, and the filling is coffee buttercream.

My husband prefers the coffee flavored ones, and I feel they're a tie with the caramel ones. I won't go into my struggles with the filling (I had never made buttercream before, and every time it failed to coalesce into something smooth). But being sandwiched between two shells, the cream's lumpiness is not too apparent. And it tastes good.

Lemon macarons. See what I mean about unpredictable results? I think these were left to dry for several hours longer than necessary, which may have made them lop-sided. A more successful batch is pictured at the bottom of this post.

Another good flavor is lemon. I used Hermé's recipe for lemon cream, available here. It's very buttery, but has a lovely texture and works well in a macaron. And the immersion blender trick -- also used by chef Pang for his caramel filling --worked well for me as a way to produce a satiny filling.

These chocolate macarons were good, but a bit soggy for some reason.

The chocolate ones are good, but they lack a little zip. I find the sweetness of the macaron really needs to be contrasted with either bitterness (dark caramel or coffee), saltiness (salted caramel), or tartness (lemon cream). I tried a little candied ginger in the center of the chocolate ones but wasn't too pleased with the result. Still, spiciness might be something to explore.

These are all hazelnut-caramel macarons, but some were overbaked. They were darker and crunchier but good too. And a lot easier to pry off the parchment paper.

Why make your own macarons?
As always, the question that begs to be asked is why bother? They're tricky, and they're not my favorite sweet (though if I consider them candy as opposed to cookies I find I really enjoy them in small quantities, with coffee for instance.)

Yes, the challenge is fun. But there are a few other great things about them:
1. They make good gifts, as many people seem to love them
2. They use up left-over egg whites: freeze your egg whites, and when you are ready to make macarons, defrost them either overnight in the fridge or for a few hours on your counter. The egg whites will then be properly "aged" and even better than freshly separated ones. (I wouldn't use frozen egg whites if they were to be served raw).
3. The flavor possibilities seem endless, and encourage the baker to tinker around.
4. They actually improve in flavor and texture a day or two after making them. And they freeze beautifully. That is fabulous to me. Most of the things I love need to be baked freshly to be enjoyed: croissants, brioche, financiers, chouquettes, you name it, are best fresh from the oven, which is not always convenient. Macarons are the perfect make-ahead treat.

Recipe: Chef Pang Kok Keong’s Macaron Caramel Fleur de Sel
From Chubby Hubby

For the macaron cookie
- 500g ground almond
[For the caramel macarons I used all toasted hazelnut instead of almonds. I think I toasted the ground hazelnuts for about 10 or 15 minutes at 150°C in the oven, until I could smell them.]
- 900g icing sugar
- 440g egg white
- 120g sugar

Sieve your ground almond and icing sugar into a mixing bowl. Make sure the mixture is lump-free. Beat the egg whites using an electrical mixer with a whisk attachment at high speed until you can see a line made by the whisk going round. Then add in the sugar while the mixer is at medium speed. Make a stiff meringue. Fold the meringue into the dry sieved ingredients until you get a homogeneous mix, taking care not to overfold it, as normal meringue are very delicate.

Pipe the mixture onto a silpat with a no. 5 plain tube into 3cm balls (The cookies will spread to approximately 5cm). If the mixture is too thick, you’ll see a tip sticking up from the balls (from where you piped them) even after you finish piping the last row. If this happens, give the tray a little tap so that you’ll get a nice smooth surface.

Leave the piped macaron cookies out to form a skin before baking them at 160 degrees Celsius in a fan oven for approximately 14-16 minutes. When totally cooled, sandwich two cookies together with either buttercream, firm mamarlade, or a caramel filling.

Caramel fleur de sel
- 200g sugar
- 1 vanilla pod
- 200g cream
- 3.75g fleur de sel
- 140g butter, chilled

In a 1 litre heavy based pot, cook the sugar, stirring all the time to get an even caramel.
[I think I let it cook until 190°C, to get an almost bitter caramel, which I like as a contrast to the macaron, but sadly I forgot to make note of the exact temperature].

Then add in the vanilla pod, scraped. Add in the warm cream a bit at a time as it will bubble up and splatter. Then add in the fleur de sel. Stir to make sure all the caramel has dissolved. Cool the mixture to approximately 40 degrees Celsius. Add in the well chilled butter, cut into cubes. Using an immersion blender, blend in the butter till you achieve a smooth glossy paste. Line the surface of the caramel with plastic wrap or greaseproof paper to prevent a skin from forming and chill in the fridge until needed.

An aside on food coloring and macarons

I don't understand why suddenly it's OK to use loads of food coloring in home-baked foods. Yes many of the macarons out there are adorable in their peppy colors. And color is a good way to indicate what's inside the macaron. My macarons all tend to look the same (unless I overbake them), and definitely not very zippy. But really, when I went into Pierre Hermé's shop a few days ago on my last visit to Paris (yes I know I'm fortunate), I nearly gagged at the brightly colored, metallic paint jobs on his latest "collection." I would love those colors on my finger nails (uhm, no, not really) or on my car, but not on my food.

If food coloring were used only on macarons, fine, I could live with it. But now it seems like it's cropping up all over the place, and I don't trust what I see in the patisserie window any more. That lovely raspberry coulis, does it owe its color to the ripeness of the fruit or to chemistry? Am I too naive? I guess ice cream often has food coloring in it (orange melon color? green pistachio color?), but I don't want to know about it!

Lemon macarons. Tinted yellow using turmeric.

In an attempt to find a natural alternative, I followed a suggestion posted here and used turmeric to tint these lemon macarons yellow. The trick is apparently to eliminate the flavor of the turmeric by toasting it along with the almonds in the oven. They came out pretty, but unfortunately I could taste the turmeric. It was a brand new bottle, maybe stale turmeric would work better. It didn't really spoil the macarons though.

But maybe using turmeric is cheating also. Shape, color and flavor should be a product of the major ingredients used in the recipe, not of trickery. Ah, but what about the magic of baking? OK, I'll live with trickery, as long as it's all natural.

For pink macarons, some use beet juice, but I find once it's baked the color loses its freshness. I tried grinding up some dehydrated strawberries (from my Special K cereal!) but there too, the color faded in the oven. Anyway, who needs red-fruit flavored macarons? Luckily my favorite flavors -- coffee, hazelnut-caramel and chocolate -- all are colored naturally. And lemon, well, it can just stay white.

Even so, many recipes suggest enhancing the chocolate macaron color with a few drops of red food coloring. Seriously, I find that disturbing. There's cocoa in those macarons, isn't that brown enough?

End of rant. My apologies if I offended anyone of the wonderful bloggers out there who produce lovely jewel-colored macarons. I would be delighted to eat any you make, and who knows, I may also eat my words one day for the simple joy of making artful-looking food.


Yaelian said...

Your macaroons look lovely and I think you have a point re. the food colours, pretty as they may be

Aran said...

Astrid, your macarons turned out beautiful! I loved your detailed post on what worked for you, what didn't. Another masterpiece!

Anonymous said...

C'est beau et c'est bon !!

Le mari qui préfère les macarons au café

Gay said...

those macaroons look really terrific! As good as the one J-Ed brought you from Paris. The colored ones are not the least bit enticing to eat. Have you tried mocha flavor?

Minko said...

love your post. it's given me motivation to try try again.

pang said...

Hi there,

your macaron looks lovely!!


Helen said...

They all look so grogeous! Great creativity with the flavors and colors!

Veron said...

Your macarons look fantastic, Astrid. Great job!

Astrid said...

Oh dear, I never answered these friendly comments... Their authors will never know, but I still want to answer now:

Yaelian - Thanks. Yeah, I remain puzzled about the widespread use of food coloring.

Aran - Thank you!

Anonymous - You inspire me to keep trying!

Gay - Er, thanks, but they're not as good as the macarons from Laduree JED brought be back from Paris, not by a long shot! I don't know how Laduree and Herme manage to make them not too sweet. Mocha, no, never tried, but isn't that like coffee? Or is there also chocolate? I've filled chocolate macarons with coffee cream, not bad.

Minko - Thanks, and thank you for your round-up.

Pang - Is this the author of the recipe? I'm honored to have you visit my blog, thank you for your comment, and for a good recipe!

Helen and Veronica - Praise from the masters, thanks so much!

nadege said...

maybe you can visit my blog.
only macarons on it !

Anonymous said...

Hello Mommy!
I didn't read the whole page about macarons, but I find it very interesting! Anyway,you're the best macaron baker I know.


Leonore ( your daughter )

Anonymous said...

I reched your blog searching for natural ways to colour macarons before attempting to make them. I find all this colorant thing unnecesary and out of times. You made a good point here. Thanks. (I'm sorry for the awful English). Virginia.

Ella - Home Cooking Adventure said...

I ran over this post in my attempt of finding natural food colors for macarons:) All my macarons I made so far are with natural ingredients, never used artificial colors. I was thinking too of beetroot juice, but haven't tried yet. Should I give beetroot a try or not? What do you suggest?

Astrid said...

Ella - Thanks for leaving a note. From what I hear, beet juice gives a lovely color which unfortunately fades once baked. Also I would imagine the added liquid might not be good for the meringue. But I've never tried. If you do try, I'd love to hear about it!

Ella - Home Cooking Adventure said...

I did try the beetroot juice, and indeed the meringue had a really nice color, but once baked the color was lost. Bu it didn't affect the meringue, the macarons turned out perfect.